PhD Candidate
Urban Planning Program
Columbia University
New York, NY

Using institutional analysis, I study how planning schemes are implemented, resident repurposing of formal built sites and plans, and the resultant socio-spatial composition of planned spaces. From my research, a general lesson applicable to the field of urban planning and processes of urbanization emerges: planning does not end with the plan; it merely begins with the plan.


I am a PhD Candidate in Urban Planning at Columbia University (Degree Expected: 2024). My interests include planning history and theory; local government and planning law; political economy and world systems; urban governance and democracy; and African urbanism with a focus on South Africa.